Science Through Time (Secrets of the Universe) – Level 3

This course provides an overview of the development of science from ancient times through to the early twentieth century. The framework for the course is the chronological development of science, showing how new scientific discoveries built upon the work of earlier scientists. Experiments, demonstrations and further reading are woven into the course to enable students to build an understanding of scientific principles. Themes studied include mechanics, astronomy, classification, botany, chemistry, and electricity. In the second year of Level 3 geology and earth science is studied as a separate, additional topic.

Time Requirements
Three lessons weekly for the main study, each lesson lasting approximately 30 to 40 minutes.

Year 2 only: an additional lesson of similar length for geology and earth science

Key Texts

Year 1:

Secrets of the Universe (Paul Fleisher) (out of print)
OR
Objects in Motion: Principles of Classical Mechanics (Paul Fleisher) and Liquids and Gases: Principles of Fluid Mechanics (Paul Fleisher) **

Alternative (UK; Australia): Inventing the Future by Mary and John Gribbin***

Our Universe: A Guide to What’s Out There (Russell Stannard) This book is out of print, but used copies are cheaply and easily available

Copernicus, Galileo and the Catholic Sponsorship of Science (Jane Meyerhofer), available from Ye Hedge School

Exploring the Sky: 100 Projects for Beginning Astronomers (Richard Moeschl)

World of Plants (Usborne Internet-Linked Library of Science)

The Plant Kingdom: A Guide to Plant Classification and Biodiversity (Theresa Greenaway) This book is out of print, but used copies are cheaply and easily available


Year 2:

Secrets of the Universe (Paul Fleisher) (out of print)
OR
Matter and Energy: Principles of Matter and Thermodynamics (Paul Fleisher) and Waves: Principles of Light, Electricity and Magnetism (Paul Fleisher)**

Alternative (UK; Australia): Inventing the Future by Mary and John Gribbin***

The Mystery of the Periodic Table (Ben Wiker)

TOPS Science #10: Analysis

TOPS Science #11: Oxidation

TOPS Science #32: Electricity

** These four books (together with a fifth which will be used at Level 4) were originally published as a single volume, Secrets of the Universe. This single volume is now out of print and hard to find used at a reasonable price.  The individual volumes are still in print, but at a rather high price – we recommend trying your library first.

*** If the Fleisher books are too difficult or expensive to obtain (especially likely to be the case outside the USA), Inventing the Future would be a suitable alternative. This tells the story of science through brief biographies of scientists. It is a secular book, simpler than the Fleisher books, and written in a chatty style with extra information in the margins. It would also be an alternative for slightly younger children, or for children who struggle with scientific concepts.

Recommended Reference Book:

Kingfisher Science Encyclopedia

Recommended Extra Resources:

Year 1: Lyrical Life Science Vol.1

Year 2: Lyrical Life Science Vol.2

Optional Further Reading:

The Story of Science Vol.1: Aristotle Leads the Way (Joy Hakim)
The Story of Science Vol.2: Newton at the Center (Joy Hakim)
The Story of Science (Henri Fabre)
The Story of Inventions (Michael J.McHugh, Frank P.Bachman)
The World of Chemistry (John Tiner)

___________________________________

YEAR 1 (3 lessons weekly)

Week 1
Liquids and Gases: Principles of Fluid Mechanics –Archimedes’ Principle (3 lessons)

Week 2
Objects in Motion: Principles of Classical Mechanics – Planetary Motion (3 lessons)

Weeks 3 and 4
Copernicus, Galileo and the Catholic Sponsorship of Science (6 lessons)

Weeks 5 to 16
Each week read one lesson from Our Universe and do two activities of your choice from Exploring the Sky: 100 Projects for Beginning Astronomers

Our Universe
(1) Leaving home
(2) First stop, the moon
(3) The Sun: a bomb that goes off slowly
(4) Visiting the neighbours
(5) Birth of the Sun
(6) Great balls of fire!; The life and death of a star
(7) Super-dense cinders
(8) Island worlds
(9) The Big Bang
(10) The creation of the Universe
(11) The future of the Universe
(12) An unfriendly Universe, or is it?
Note: The author of Our Universe is a lay reader in the Church of England and a retired professor of physics. The book is written for a secular audience, but in the last chapter when he addresses the origins of the universe Divine Creation is put forward as one of two or three hypotheses, with the statement that he believes this to be the correct explanation.

Week 17
Objects in Motion: Principles of Classical Mechanics – Pendulums and Falling Objects (3 lessons)

Week 18
Objects in Motion: Principles of Classical Mechanics – Newton’s Three Laws (3 lessons)

Week 19 (See next section for alternative Weeks 19 to 24)
Objects in Motion: Principles of Classical Mechanics – The Law of Universal Gravitation (3 lessons)

Week 20
Objects in Motion: Principles of Classical Mechanics – Conservation of Momentum (3 lessons)

Week 21
Liquids and Gases: Principles of Fluid Mechanics – Pascal’s Law: Liquids (3 lessons)

Week 22
Liquids and Gases: Principles of Fluid Mechanics – Boyle’s and Charles’ Law (3 lessons)

Week 23
Liquids and Gases: Principles of Fluid Mechanics – Bernoulli’s Principle (3 lessons)

Week 24
Catch up / review.

Weeks 25 to 29

The Plant Kingdom: A Guide to Plant Classification and Biodiversity (5 lessons)

Week 30
World of Plants (Usborne Interlinked Library of Science)
Notes:
(1) This book does not lend itself to narration; keep a nature/botany notebook instead. Include diagrams, define terms and describe activities carried out.
(2) Most sections of this book include a “see for yourself” activity.
(3) Choose one or more internet links to follow for each section.
(1) Plant cells
(2) Stems and roots
(3) Plant tissue

Week 31
World of Plants
(1) Inside older plants
(2) Leaves
(3) Leaf structure

Week 32
World of Plants
(1) Movement of fluids
(2) Plant food (4 pages)
(3) Plant sensitivity

Week 33
World of Plants
(1) Flowering plants (4 pages)
(2) Seeds and fruit (4 pages)
(3) New plants from old

Week 34
World of Plants
(1) Water plants
(2) Flowerless plants
(3) Fungi

Week 35
World of Plants
(1) Fighting for survival
(2) Plant lifestyles
(3) Plants and people

Week 36
World of Plants
(1) Natural cycles
(2) Classifying plants
(3) Genetics

YEAR 2

Week 1

The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.1: The Puzzle
TOPS Analysis: Read a Flow Chart
TOPS Analysis: Sand from Salt (1)

Week 2
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.2: The First Chemists
TOPS Analysis: Sand from Salt (2)
TOPS Analysis: Write a Flow Chart

Week 3
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.3: Earth, Air, Fire, Water
TOPS Analysis: Reaction Table (1)
TOPS Analysis: Reaction Table (2)

Week 4
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.4: TheAlchemists
TOPS Analysis: Powder Puzzles (1)
TOPS Analysis: Powder Puzzles (2)

Week 5
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.5: “This Spirit, Hitherto Unknown”
TOPS Analysis: The Litmus Test
TOPS Analysis: Dilute or Neutralize?

Week 6
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.6: The Atomists Return
TOPS Analysis: Titration
TOPS Analysis: Cabbage Water Indicator

Week 7
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.7: The Strange Tale of Phlogiston, the Element That Wasn’t
TOPS Analysis: Color Recipes
TOPS Analysis: What’s the pH?

Week 8
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.8: Mr.Priestley Clears Things Up (Sort of)
TOPS Analysis: Beet Juice Indicator
TOPS Analysis: Buffers Resist Change

Week 9
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.9: Mr.Cavendish and Inflammable Air
TOPS Oxidation: Candle Combustion
TOPS Oxidation: Human Respiration

Week 10
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.10: Chemistry’s French Revolution
TOPS Oxidation: I Feel Faint
TOPS Oxidation: Bottom Burner

Week 11
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.11: A Revolution in Names
TOPS Oxidation: It’s a Gas
TOPS Oxidation: Limewater Reaction

Week 12
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.12: “Nature Never Creates Other Than Balance in Hand”
TOPS Oxidation: Three Little Jars
TOPS Oxidation: Chemical Overview

Week 13
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.13: Mr.Dalton and His Atoms
TOPS Oxidation: Glowing Splint
TOPS Oxidation: Iron Rusts

Week 14
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.14: The Shocking Mr.Davy
TOPS Oxidation: Percent Oxygen?
TOPS Oxidation: Does Iron Burn?

Week 15
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.15: Gay-Lussac and Avogadro to the Rescue
TOPS Oxidation: Chemistry Puzzle
TOPS Oxidation: What’s Your Hypothesis?

Week 16
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.16: Things Fall Into Place: Triads and Octaves
TOPS Oxidation: Reproducible Results
TOPS Oxidation: Isopropyl Investigation

Week 17
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.17: The Mystery Solved
Note: The last chapter of this book is more complex, and has been broken down into small units. You may find it helpful to use a science reference work such as the Kingfisher Science Encyclopedia alongside The Mystery of the Periodic Table. You may also need to work with your child on this section.
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.18: The Mystery Continues, Part I (pp.129-133, last para.)
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.18: The Mystery Continues, Part I (pp.133 last para-137 4th para)

Week 18
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.18: The Mystery Continues, Part I (pp.137 5th para -141 last para)
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.18: The Mystery Continues, Part I (pp.141 last para – 145)
The Mystery of the Periodic Table – Ch.18: The Mystery Continues, Part II (pp.145-151)

Week 19
Matter and Energy: Principles of Matter and Thermodynamics – Law of Conservation of Matter (3 lessons)

Week 20
Matter and Energy: Principles of Matter and Thermodynamics – How the Elements Combine (3 lessons)

Week 21
Matter and Energy: Principles of Matter and Thermodynamics – Mendeleev’s Periodic Law (3 lessons)

Week 22
Matter and Energy: Principles of Matter and Thermodynamics – The First Law of Thermodynamics (3 lessons)

Week 23
Matter and Energy: Principles of Matter and Thermodynamics – The Second Law of Thermodynamics (3 lessons)

Week 24
Catch up / Review

Week 25

Waves: Principles of Light, Electricity and Magnetism – Optics: the Laws of Light (3 lessons)

Week 26
Waves: Principles of Light, Electricity and Magnetism – Law of Electromagnetism (3 lessons)

Week 27
Waves: Principles of Light, Electricity and Magnetism – Ohm’s Law and Joule’s Law (3 lessons)

Week 28
TOPS Electricity: It Works!
TOPS Electricity: To Light or Not to Light
TOPS Electricity: Light Bulb Predictions

Week 29
TOPS Electricity: Series Means in a Row
TOPS Electricity: Parallel Means Side by Side
TOPS Electricity: Conductor or Insulator?

Week 30
TOPS Electricity: Electric Puzzles
TOPS Electricity: Build a Circuit
TOPS Electricity: Electric By-Pass

Week 31
TOPS Electricity: Circuit Symbols
TOPS Electricity: Electro-Squares
TOPS Electricity: Map It – Draw It – Build It

Week 32
TOPS Electricity: Series or Parallel?
TOPS Electricity: Resistance in a Wire
TOPS Electricity: A Flashy Experiment

Week 33
TOPS Electricity: Surprise Circuits
TOPS Electricity: Build a Fuse
TOPS Electricity: Big Bang!

Week 34
TOPS Electricity: 2 Way Switches
TOPS Electricity: Bulbs and a Penny

Weeks 35 and 36
Catch up / Review

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